English/Language Arts Standards
Second Grade


  1. WORD ANALYSIS, FLUENCY, AND SYSTEMATIC VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT:Students understand the basic features of a reading. They select and know how to translate letter patterns into spoken language using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent reading.

    Decoding and Word Recognition:

    1. Recognize and use knowledge of spelling patterns (e.g., diphthongs, special vowel spellings) when reading

    2. Apply knowledge of basic syllabication rules when reading (e.g., v/cv = su/per; vc/cv = sup/per)

    3. Decode two-syllable nonsense words and regular multi-syllable words

    4. Recognize common abbreviations (e.g., Jan., Sun., Rt., St.)

    5. Identify and correctly use regular plurals (e.g., -s, -es, -ies) and irregular plurals (e.g., fly/flies, wife/wives)

    6. Read aloud with fluency and accuracy, and with appropriate intonation and expression

    Vocabulary and Concept Development:

    1. Understand and explain common antonyms and synonyms

    2. Use knowledge of individual words in unknown compound words to predict their meaning

    3. Know the meaning of simple prefixes and suffixes (e.g., over-, un-, - ing, -ly)

    4. Identify simple multiple-meaning words

  2. READING COMPREHENSION:Students read and understand grade-level- appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as needed, including generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, and comparing information from several sources. The quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students are illustrated in The California Reading List. In addition to their regular school reading, by grade 4, students read one-half million words annually, including a good representation of narrative (i.e., classic and contemporary literature) and expository (e.g., magazines, on-line) text appropriate for each grade.

    Structural Features of Informational Materials:

    1. Use titles, table of contents, and chapter headings to locate information in expository text

    Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text:
    1. State purpose engaging in reading (i.e., tell what information the student is seeking)

    2. Use knowledge of author's purpose(s) to comprehend informational text

    3. Ask clarifying questions concerning essential textual elements (e.g., why, what, how)

    4. Restate facts and details in text to clarify and organize ideas

    5. Recognize cause and effect relationships in text

    6. Interpret information from diagrams, charts, and graphs

    7. Follow two-step written instructions

  3. LITERARY RESPONSE AND ANALYSIS:Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of children's literature. They distinguish between the structural features of text and the literary terms or elements (i.e., theme, plot, setting, and characters). The quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students are illustrated in The California Reading List.

    Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text:

    1. Compare and contrast plots, settings, and characters presented by different authors

    2. Generate alternative endings to plots, and identify reason(s) for, and impact of, the alternatives

    3. Compare and contrast different versions of the same stories that reflect different cultures

    4. Identify rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration in poetry


  1. WRITING STRATEGIES:Students write clear and coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea. Their writing considers audience and purpose. They successfully use the stages of the writing process (i.e., pre-writing, drafting, revising, and editing successive versions).

    Organization and Focus:

    1. Group together related ideas, and maintain a consistent focus

    1. Create readable documents with legible handwriting

    1. Understand the purposes of various reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, atlas)

    Revising and Evaluating Strategies:
    1. Revise original drafts to improve sequence and provide more descriptive detail

  2. WRITING APPLICATIONS (GENRES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS):Students write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and experiences. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard English and the drafting, research, and organizational strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.

    Using the Grade 2 writing strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:

    1. Write brief narratives based on their experience that

      1. move through a logical sequence of events and
      2. describe the setting, characters, objects, and events in detail
    2. Write a friendly letter complete with date, salutation, body, closing, and signature

(English Language Conventions are integral both to Writing and to Listening and Speaking. Thus, these standards have been placed between the other two.)

  1. WRITTEN AND ORAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS:Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions that are appropriate to each grade level.

    Sentence Structure:

    1. Distinguish between complete and incomplete sentences and recognize and use correct word order in written sentences

    1. Identify and correctly use various parts of speech, nouns and verbs, in writing and speaking


    1. Use commas in the greeting and closure of a letter and with dates and words in a series

    2. Use quotation marks correctly

    1. Capitalize all proper nouns, words at the beginning of sentences and in greetings, months and days of the week, and titles and initials of people

    1. Spell frequently used, irregular words correctly (e.g., who, what, why)

    2. Spell basic short-vowel, long-vowel, r-controlled, and consonant-blend patterns correctly


  1. LISTENING AND SPEAKING STRATEGIES:Students listen and respond critically to oral communication. They speak in a manner that guides and informs the listener's understanding of key ideas, using appropriate phrasing, pitch, and modulation.


    1. Determine the purposes for listening (e.g., to get information, to solve problems, enjoyment)

    2. Ask for clarification and explanation of stories and ideas

    3. Paraphrase information this has been shared orally by others

    4. Give and follow three- and four-step oral directions

    Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication:
    1. Organize presentations to maintain a clear focus

    2. Speak clearly and at an appropriate pace for the type of communication (e.g., informal discussion, report to class)

    3. Recount experiences in a logical sequence

    4. Retell stories, including characters, setting, and plot

    5. Report on a topic, including supportive facts and details

  2. SPEAKING APPLICATIONS (GENRES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS):Students deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests that are organized around a coherent thesis statement. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard English and the organization and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.

    Using the speaking strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students:

    1. Recount experiences or present stories that

      1. move through a logical sequence of events
      2. describe story elements (e.g., characters, plot, setting)
    2. Report on a topic with facts and details, drawing from several sources of information